To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Architecture-Town planning. Siva Raman. Lakshmanan Asst. Planning concepts related to garden city, geddesian triad, neighbourhood planning, radburn layout, ekistics, satellite towns and ribbon development.
Text book of Town Planning, A. Arthur B. Rangwala, Town Planning, Charotar publishing house 4. Hiraskar, Town Planning 5. Rame Gowda, Urban and Regional planning 6. Khanna, Highway Engineering, C. Roorkee 7. Modak, V. Chapter 1 Page 2 What is Town planning? This process of planning results in frameworks for coping with change. Some are physical elements such as streets, roads, and sewer lines. Some are concepts that serve as guides to action, such as the goal of becoming a major distribution center or of encouraging investment in the core of the city.
Some are regulatory, reflecting the desires of the community to encourage good development and discourage bad development. The consequences of this change can be chaotic and destructive, or enhancing. It is the planner's task to help communities cope with this steady growth, change, and renewal in ways that will maintain-and improve-the community's quality of life.
As with natural environments, human communities are strengthened by diversity. One task is to help communities become even more diverse, broadening the variety of employment, educational, cultural, entertainment, shopping, and housing opportunities and promoting a broad range of land uses, income levels, and types of people.
Another task is to help communities deal with the clashes of interest produced by such variety and turn these differences into a positive force for constructive change. Chapter 1 Page 3 Aims and objectives of town planning The main objectives of the town planning may be summarised in three words viz. Health, Convenience and Beauty 1.
Public amenities required for the proper upkeep of the citizens include water supply, sanitation, electricity, post, telegraph, gas etc.
In plan preparation, the physical planning should associate with the socio-economical, geographical, political factors, for achieving the objective in desired direction.
The various stages of planning process are as follows: 1. Identification and definition of problems 2. Defining the objectives 3. Studies and survey 4. Analysis of data and preparation of study maps 5. Fore-casting 6. Design 7. Fixation of priorities 8.Read this article to learn about Materials Planning. After reading this article you will learn about: 1.
Meaning of Materials Planning 2. Techniques of Materials Planning. Materials Planning has been defined as the scientific way of determining the requirements of raw materials, components and other items needed for production within the economic investment policies. It is rather a sub system in the overall planning activity.
The factors affecting materials planning can be classified into micro and macro factors. Factor such as price trends, business cycles, government policy, credit policy etc. The planning for materials management is aimed at determining the demand for the end-products. This is possible only through farsightedness or forecasting. There are various techniques for forecasting.
These techniques are equally applicable to demand forecasting. After demand forecast the exercise of materials planning starts. Requirements for various materials are ascertained from the demand forecast. For this purpose, the bill of materials is used through explosion charts. The bill of materials is prepared and issued by the planning or engineering department in a standard form. An explosion chart is just a series of bills of materials grouped together in a matrix form so that combining the requirements for different components can be done.
Materials planning are usually made for a short period on a quarterly basis and at the beginning of every quarter; it is quite natural to find that some materials are in short supply and some in excess. This can be ascribed to wrong forecasting. To rectify such errors in the estimation of materials, quarterly planning is resorted to.
In engineering industries, even quarterly planning seems to be too long and realistic ordering is placed with the suppliers. For continuously needed materials and the materials where no bill of materials is possible, this technique of analysis is adopted- The past consumption data is analyse and a projection for the future on the basis of past experience and future need is made. These are all statistical tools and are very effective to absorb the stock of fluctuation in consumption of direct and indirect materials where no straight-forward norms of consumption can be formulated.
In the process industries, this technique is particularly suitable. Procurement of the Items: 4 Main Steps.This strategy allows you to plan the variants of one product. The term variant indicates "similar". This planning strategy is particularly useful for planning BOMs that contain variant as well as non-variable parts. The important feature of this strategy is that you can procure non-variable components on the basis of planning in Demand Management. Production of the finished product is based on actual sales orders.
This procedure ensures that you can react quickly to customer requirements even if the finished product has a long overall lead time. You can avoid the main value-added process until you have a customer. The term variant indicates "similar" parts; it is not used in the sense of variant configuration, which implies a much higher number of variants.
With this strategy, for example, you can easily exchange a component in all similar BOMs. This strategy lends itself to the planning of different sizes or packages for one product.
For instance, you may want to sell a product in packages:. Create a separate material master record for the planning material and enter the planning material in the material master record of all finished products that are to be planned using this planning strategy.
Maintain the products as follows:. This strategy has the same basic features as strategy In addition many materials can consume the planned independent requirements of one planning material.
Refer to Planning Without Final Assembly 50 for more information on the differences between these strategies. The non-variable parts are planned using the BOM of a planning material. The planning material is used for planning purposes only. It is not actually produced, but is used to pass on the dependent requirements of the non-variable parts from the finished product.
The variant parts can be planned using the strategy Planning at Assembly Level The advantage of planning with a planning material is that you can plan all the non-variable parts included in several finished products together. Plan the variant components independently using a planning strategy for components.Architecture Gate study material -7 (Town Planning - 1)
See Strategies for Planning Components for more information. If you have high variance in your products, you may want to automate the planning of components. See Strategies for Configurable Materials for more information.
Please refer the Below SAP link and also try the strategy as given in example. Then please comeback for further discussion. U ahve to create seperate material code for each material Variant like 1Ltr packed milk2 ltr Packed milk. Now u can proceed the Planning wih planning material with necessary settings as given in SAP Help file. Not what you're looking for? Search community questions. This question has been deleted.
This question has been undeleted. Former Member. Posted on May 12, at AM Views. Hi dudes, Any one of you plz explain about planning strategy 60 planning with a planning material Regards Daniel. Add comment.This strategy allows you to procure non-variable components based on the planned independent requirements of a planning material. Production of the finished product, however, is based on actual sales orders. This procedure allows you to react quickly to customer requirements, even if the finished product has a long overall lead time; you can avoid the main value-added process until you have a customer.
In addition, more than one material can consume the planned independent requirements of one planning material.
Planning with a planning material (60) strategy
This strategy allows you to plan the variants of one product. The term variant indicates "similar" parts; it is not used in the sense of variant configuration, which implies a much higher number of variants. With this strategy, for example, you can easily exchange a component in all similar BOMs.
This strategy lends itself to the planning of different sizes or packages for one product. For instance, you may want to sell a product:. All variants are set up as different material numbers. In addition a planning material is usually set up that consists of the non-variant components only, which means excluding the packaging materials which form the variants. All variants are linked to the planning material by means of the correct conversion factors.
The packaging materials boxes or cartons for the different sizes or different labels can be planned on the basis of consumption because they are not too expensive.
MRP screen 63 63 Item category group. Need to be maintained so that the planned independent requirements can be found.
Category: Urban Planning
MRP screen Need to be maintained. Bill of material Required. Contains all parts Required. For a detailed example of the entire process, see Sample Scenario: Strategy The planning material could be sold in the same way as any variant product.
However, it is generally used as an "artificial" material that contains the non-variant parts only. The BOMs of the variant products contain additional components which diversify the product.
If your products have a high level of variance, you may want to use characteristics planning in order to automate the planning of components. This strategy can also be used as a cross-plant version of strategy See Cross-Plant Planning for more information. The planned independent requirements for the planning material represent a given capacity situation.
All variant materials require a similar capacity and there is an allocation of given capacity with requested capacity at the order entry stage. You can easily check the capacity situation using the total requirements list.
Imagine that the planning material contains the components A, B, and D. The variant material contains the components A, B, and C. The planning material is planned with pieces each month. There are therefore also dependent requirements for components each month. Due to the fact that the planning material is a representation of all variants, too much is planned for component D and too little is planned for component C.
This situation is not a problem if you want to over-plan component D on purpose to have a higher stock level for it, for instance. In most cases, however, you would avoid this situation by employing other means, that is, by not including components C or D in the BOM of the planning material. The variant parts could be planned using Planning at Assembly Level 70or by simply using consumption-based variant parts. Strategy group MRP screen.
Item category group Sales organization screen. Lot size key MRP screen.The difference between town planning and architecture should be noted.
The town planning expresses an era. The architecture reveals its spirit. In the ancient times, the primitive men used to stay in tribes and they formed groups for mutual protection for carrying out business activities and maintaining a social life. The location of the settlements was decided taking into consideration the ease of defense, climatic factors, business facilities etc.
Combination of concentric and radial pattern London. By civilization, we mean urban civilization. There were obviously human groups before that period. Today, designing towns is not as easy as it used to be in the past. We have to deal with problems that did not exist in the past.
Town planning professionals have to consider the planning for the next 40 years while they plan the road network for the new city. Designing the road network itself constitutes a lot of complex calculations including increase in population density, wealth, increase in the number of private vehicles, public transport etc. We have to hire transportation planning professionals in order to establish an efficient public transport network for the automobiles.
But this is not possible only with the help of transportation planning professionals. Town planners and transportation planning professionals have to work hand in hand in order to complement the road network with the new public transport. Today, with the increase in the number of vehicles, there are severe air pollution problems which has resulted in an increase in the number of diseases caused due to polluted air. Water pollution is another problem caused due to urbanization.
Air pollution is also responsible for water pollution. Also, the industries discharge their waste into the natural water bodies making them deadly poisonous. This has disrupted the peace of mind of the people. The honking and movement of vehicles has caused unbearable noise pollution. On the design front, we have to take initiatives in order to reduce the problems caused by our new planning system.
We are the ones who introduced cars in our system and made our lives completely dependent on them. Not only that, previously, towns and cities were designed for the people. Today, they are designed for the cars. They are designed in a way to take in the maximum number of cars possible without causing congestion and giving very little consideration to the pedestrians.
Today, the role of designers town planners, architects, transportation planning professionals, engineers is not just limited to designing towns and cities to take in traffic but to focus on reduces the number of cars in a way acceptable to people.
Inducing a positive change in the lifestyles of the people with the aid of designing their environments that would encourage them to reduce using cars and then ultimately give up on the use of cars where unnecessary. Problems in the city of Brighton.
Energy efficient Urban Planning. Role of a Town planner. Designing satellite townships.
You can follow any responses to this entry through RSS 2. Architecture is not a business, not a career, but a crusade and a consecration to a joy that justifies the existence of the earth — Henry Cameron. Design of towns today Sustainable Town planning What is town planning? Evolution of planning In the ancient times, the primitive men used to stay in tribes and they formed groups for mutual protection for carrying out business activities and maintaining a social life.
Related posts: Which tools are responsible for shaping our cities? Comments 0 Related Posts No comments yet. Cancel Reply.Cross-section of a proposed urban village with rooftop agriculture and transit oriented development. Illustration courtesy of Beijing Urban Design Studio. Sensing Place: Photography as Inquiry.
The Once and Future City. The City in Film. Introduction to Housing, Community, and Economic Development. Infrastructure and Energy Technology Challenges. Youth Political Participation. Malaysia Sustainable Cities Practicum. Since its inception inthe Department of Urban Studies and Planning has consistently remained one of the top planning schools in the country.
Now totaling close to 60 teaching faculty members more than half of whom are full-time tenured and tenure-track facultyit has the largest planning faculty in the United States. The Department is organized around the following core questions of engagement and progressive change: "Can we make a difference in the world? Can we design better cities? Can we help places grow more sustainably?
Can we help communities thrive? Can we help advance equitable world development? We are committed to positive social change. Our moral vision is translated into professional education in distinct ways:. Don't show me this again. No enrollment or registration. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. There's no signup, and no start or end dates.The subject matter is expressed in a simple.
Free PDF ebooks user's guide, manuals, sheets about Download rangwala town planning pdf book ready for download. This book won the National Book Award. Town Planning in practice, Raymond Unwin. Planning the Twentieth-Century American City. Online shopping from a great selection at Books Store.
Town Planning 1 January Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land. Ancient town-planning. PDF download. Get Textbooks on Google Play. Rent and save from the world's largest eBookstore. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.
Building Construction By. Rangwala, Town Planning By Rangwala. This Book have some digital.
Category: Urban Planning
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